Blanchiment d’argent: La difficile lutte des banques

Lu par 283028 Boytown

Alors que les responsables de la banque britannique HSBC faisaient part de leurs excuses et regrets quant à l’existence de canaux de blanchiment d’argent dans la respectable maison fondée à Hongkong par l’Ecossais Thomas Sutherland (pourfinancer le commerce dans l’Extrême-Orient et, à l’origine – en 1865 –, le trafic d’opium !), Moneyval, organe du Conseil de l’Europe, rendait mercredi 18 juillet à Strasbourg son rapport sur les efforts de transparence du Vatican.

Ou plutôt de sa banque. Car dans le blanchiment, il y a plusieurs écoles ;l’Observatoire géopolitique des drogues en donne le détail : immobilier, matières premières, transactions commerciales, pots de vins… et, le plus courant dans la panoplie du blanchisseur, injection dans le circuit bancaire.

Résultat de l’enquête de Moneyval : “le rapport du Conseil de l’Europe appelle le Saint-Siège à renforcer son régime de supervision” ; en d’autres termes, il reste des “problématiques importantes à traiter”.

Entrant plus avant dans le détail, les évaluateurs estiment que “le rôle, la mission, les compétences, les pouvoirs et l’indépendance de l’autorité chargée des renseignements financiers (…) manquaient de clarté. Aucune visite sur site ni aucun test par échantillon des dossiers de clients n’ont été menés. Il est fortement recommandé que l’Institut pour les œuvres de religion [IOR, la banque du Vatican] soit placé sous la supervision indépendante d’un superviseur prudentiel dans un proche avenir.”

Il faut dire que l’IOR était encore, il y a peu, sous la lumière crue des médias, comme l’est actuellement HSBC. Son ex-président Ettore Gotti Tedeschi, récemment limogé, a été entendu en juin comme témoin assisté dans le cadre d’une enquête sur une affaire de blanchiment. Et il fait l’objet depuis septembre 2010, tout comme le directeur général de l’IOR Paolo Cipriani, encore en place, d’une enquête pour violation de la législation italienne antiblanchiment.

LES BANQUES PEINENT À SE RÉFORMER

La Banque d’Italie aurait signalé à la magistrature une dizaine d’opérations suspectes concernant des prêtres ou religieux qui auraient servi de prête-noms pour d’obscurs transferts d’argent. La presse italienne a notamment cité une opération mise à jour il y a deux ans par le parquet de Catane montrant que le Sicilien Antonino Bonaccorsi, dont le frère a été condamné pour association mafieuse, avait réussi à blanchir 300 000 euros de provenance illicite en les faisant transiter sur le compte de son fils prêtre, Don Orazio, auprès de l’IOR.

“L’Institut pour les œuvres de religion (…) a entamé le passage en revue de sa base de données clients. Le rapport recommande d’envisager sérieusement d’adopter une disposition légale décrivant qui est habilité à ouvrir et détenir des comptes auprès de l’Institut pour les œuvres de religion”, recommande simplement le rapport des experts européens publié ce mercredi.

Lire : “Banque du Vatican : scandales en série”

D’après la banque centrale italienne, en 2010-2011, les comptes rendus d’opérations financières s’apparentant à du blanchiment d’argent ont augmenté de 147 % par rapport aux deux années précédentes, la crise économique ayant favorisé les organisations mafieuses qui suppléent aux banques, moins prêteuses. L’association SOS Impresa a même estimé qu’en 2011, la mafia disposait de 65 millions d’euros disponibles en espèces, ce qui faisait d’elle la première banque du pays.

UN GAFI IMPUISSANT AU NIVEAU MONDIAL

Car si le Gafi, le Groupe d’action financière, basé à Paris et censé chapeauterl’action internationale en termes de lutte antiblanchiment, rappelle que “le montant des capitaux blanchis” et des crimes “sous-jacents” représente entre 2 % à 5 % de la richesse mondiale, son champ d’action se limite aux Etats, qu’il essaie d’associer à son combat.

Son dernier rapport, publié début juillet (PDF), tente de se pencher sur l’aspect privé du problème, avec la question de pouvoir “déterminer si un client ou un bénéficiaire effectif est une personne politiquement exposée”. En clair, il s’agit depeser sur les banques… diplomatiquement. “Ce rapport est destiné à assister le secteur financier à mieux comprendre et identifier les facteurs de risque qui peuvent révéler le blanchiment de produits de la corruption”, avance prudemment le Gafi.

De fait, les pays restent maîtres de leur législation, au-delà des accords et traités internationaux de coopération signés. Washington a ainsi annoncé en fin d’année dernière avoir désigné formellement et unilatéralement l’Iran comme une “source d’inquiétude majeure en matière de blanchiment”. Conformément à la loi “Patriot Act” votée peu de temps après les attentats du 11-Septembre, cette mesure ouvre la voie à d’éventuelles sanctions des Etats-Unis contre les banques qui traitent avec l’Iran, par l’intermédiaire de banques iraniennes ou de la banque centrale du pays.

C’est également au niveau national, et contre amendes à honorer, que se sont réglées les affaires Wachovia, Credit Suisse, ABN Amro et Lloyd… et que pourrait se régler l’affaire HSBC.

Lire : “La banque britannique HSBC admet des pratiques de blanchiment aux Etats-Unis” (lien abonnés)

De son côté, l’OCDE, autre instance régulatrice, en a été réduite à faire des nuances dans sa liste noire-gris-foncé-ou-clair (PDF) des pays en délicatesse avec la définition de transparence, puis à intégrer presque tous les pays dans la même liste (PDF).

FAIBLE COORDINATION EN EUROPE

Au niveau communautaire, sur le Vieux Continent, la lutte contre le blanchiment bancaire manque encore de souffle. Certes, en mars dernier, l’Autorité desservices financiers britannique (FSA) a condamné la prestigieuse maison de gestion de fortune Coutts à 10 millions d’euros d’amende pour son laxisme en matière de lutte contre l’argent sale. Mais comme aux Etats-Unis, les affaires d’argent sale se lavent en famille, c’est-à-dire à l’échelon national, et seulement quand le pays fait preuve de bonne volonté.

En Suisse, dans l’affaire UBS en 2009, les autorités avaient fini par conclure un accord avec Washington et livrer les noms de 4 450 clients, soupçonnés d’évasion fiscale et de blanchiment.

Andorre a été pointé du doigt en raison du manque de moyens de l’Unité d’intelligence financière, chargée de l’inspection des quelque 180 établissements financiers répertoriés dans la principauté. La question de Malte est également problématique.

Au Luxembourg, la FIU (Financial Intelligence Unit), chargée de la lutte contre le blanchiment d’argent dans la principauté et à Monaco, le Siccfin (Service d’information et de controle sur les circuits financiers), sont eux accusés de ne pas offrir une pleine collaboration aux pays membres dont les personnes incriminées sont parfois ressortissantes.

Lire : “Paradis fiscaux : les banques prennent leurs distances”

Mathilde Damgé

Le rôle de l’ACF et de la Tracfin dans l’HexagoneEn France, tout organisme financier (banques, assurances, mutuelles) doit déclarer à la Tracfin les opérations financières ou les sommes qui pourraient provenir de certains délits, en adressant une “déclaration de soupçons”, s’il n’est pas possible de connaître avec certitude l’identité véritable du donneur d’ordre ou la provenance des capitaux déposés sur le compte.

Mais, dernièrement, c’est la transmission par l’Autorité de contrôle prudentiel (ACP)d’une note sur les pratiques commerciales d’UBS en France qui a permis au Service national de douane judiciaire d’effectuer les premières investigations sur la banque, accusée de blanchiment.

Le rôle de la Tracfin et de ses 83 agents se limite en effet à faire des recoupements de fichiers et de relevés bancaires à partir de ces déclarations de soupçons émanant des banques. Et concerne davantage les politiques et les entreprises que les opérations plus spécifiquement bancaires.

Lu par 283028 Boytown

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