computer fraud_0

Cybercriminalité en Afrique: arnaques, crimes, internet

Lu par 4584 Boytown

En Afrique, comme ailleurs, le web attire des truands excités par des gains faciles et peu risqués. Enquête sur un univers sans frontières, où les lois sont floues, la langue obscure et les individus pas très Net.

Chaque seconde dans le monde, 18 personnes sont victimes d’une escroquerie sur internet. Ils seront plus de 1,5 million à la fin de cette journée, soit l’équivalent de la population du Gabon. Cette année, quelque 550 millions de victimes perdront au total, comme ce fut le cas en 2011, la bagatelle de 110 milliards de dollars (83,3 milliards d’euros). Ce qui représente plus que le produit intérieur brut (PIB) du Maroc. L’Afrique n’est pas étrangère au phénomène. Bien qu’en retard en termes de connexion internet, le continent est montré du doigt, notamment par le FBI, qui a placé, en 2010, trois pays africains parmi les dix premières sources de cyberarnaques. Les « heureux élus » : le Nigeria (3e), le Ghana (7e), et le Cameroun (9e), dont le nom de domaine « .cm » fait partie, selon un rapport publié en 2011 par la société de sécurité informatique McAfee, des cinq noms les plus « risqués » de la planète.

À la nigériane

Seul pays africain à se hisser sur ce triste podium, le Nigeria s’est même fait un nom dans le milieu. La spécialité locale, « l’arnaque à la nigériane », est aujourd’hui célèbre. Elle se présente généralement sous la forme d’un e-mail dans lequel une personne affirme posséder une importante somme d’argent, en général plusieurs millions de dollars, sous forme d’héritage ou de fonds à placer à l’étranger. « Ayant eu l’opportunité d’occuper un portefeuille de secrétaire d’État en Angola, j’ai eu à attribuer un contrat d’irrigation à une société portugaise et j’ai reçu en compensation la somme de 22 millions de dollars », est-il ainsi expliqué dans cette arnaque qui s’appuie sur le contexte angolais. Avant de détailler : « Mais j’ai dû quitter mon pays pour me réfugier au Bénin à cause des problèmes politiques. » L’arnaqueur demande alors de l’aide pour effectuer un transfert d’argent. En échange, il offre un pourcentage sur la somme en question. Un « partenariat gagnant-gagnant », qui pousse la victime à accepter d’avancer les montants destinés à couvrir les frais (imaginaires) de notaire, avant que le transfert ne soit effectif. Lequel, bien entendu, ne le sera jamais.

Le continent est montré du doigt par le FBI, notamment le Nigeria, le Ghana et le Cameroun.

Une arnaque à la nigériane jugée en 2010 aux États-Unis a rapporté à son auteur 20 000 dollars en moyenne par victime. Ce qui reste évidemment bien loin des sommets : en Côte d’Ivoire, de mémoire de policier, le record atteindrait 800 000 euros. « L’opportunité est énorme », explique le directeur de l’informatique et des traces technologiques au sein de la Plateforme de lutte contre la cybercriminalité (PLCC) d’Abidjan, Stéphane Konan : « Un braquage de banque rapporte en moyenne 15 000 euros en Côte d’Ivoire. Une arnaque sur internet, avec un investissement de 3 euros, peut également faire gagner 15 000 euros. Le choix est vite fait. En plus, les risques sont beaucoup moins importants. »

Législations balbutiantes

Les législations, au mieux balbutiantes, ont laissé ces pratiques prendre de l’ampleur rapidement. D’abord spécialité du Nigeria, l’arnaque s’est étendue, en particulier à la Côte d’Ivoire. Abidjan est aujourd’hui considéré comme sa capitale. Mais c’est toute l’Afrique de l’Ouest – et l’Afrique centrale à moindre échelle – qui est pointée. Certes, elle reste loin derrière l’Europe de l’Est, où les pirates informatiques se sont spécialisés dans les attaques de grande envergure, extrêmement lucratives. La région est toutefois la principale origine des arnaques visant les pays européens francophones, à savoir la France, la Belgique et la Suisse. Le dernier rapport de l’Observatoire national de la délinquance et des réponses pénales (ONDRP) français affirme même que « l’Afrique noire […] développe une véritable culture de l’escroquerie en ligne ».

Ce sont surtout les biens et les personnes qui sont visés. Les services de police ivoiriens estiment ainsi que, pour l’année 2012, 90 % des arnaques recensées sur internet émanant de leur pays ciblaient le Vieux Continent. En revanche, les cas de cybercriminalité à caractère politique ne sont pas encore légion.

Les groupes de pirates marocains tels que Team Evil ou, plus récemment, Moroccan Ghosts, font ainsi partie des exceptions en s’attaquant aux sites de jeux de hasard en ligne et à des sites israéliens pour des raisons religieuses et politiques. Ils visent aussi des sites espagnols en prétextant lutter pour la libération des enclaves de Ceuta et Melilla. Tout au plus sont-ils imités dans leur démarche dite « hacktiviste » par des pirates camerounais qui ont pris pour cibles les sites du Premier ministre, du ministère des Domaines et des Affaires foncières (2008), ou du Parti des démocrates camerounais (2011). Mais le phénomène reste peu fréquent.

“J’ai une vidéo porno de toi”

Le chantage à la vidéo, en revanche, s’est développé avec l’explosion des réseaux sociaux, Facebook en tête. La victime idéale en est souvent un fervent adepte. En mal de relations (de toute sorte), elle est de préférence prête à exposer des éléments de sa vie privée. Photos, vidéos de strip-tease, les « hameçonnés » peuvent aller très loin. Ce qui les pousse, une fois soumis au chantage, à certaines extrémités. Voire au suicide, comme ce jeune Breton (France) prénommé Gauthier qui s’est donné la mort en octobre 2012, à l’âge de 18 ans, après avoir été piégé par une prétendue jeune fille.

Au fil de leur conversation, le jeune homme avait fini par accepter de se dévêtir. Seulement, de l’autre côté de la caméra, ce n’était pas une jeune fille qui le regardait, mais un « brouteur », autrement dit un maître chanteur. En menaçant Gauthier de diffuser l’enregistrement s’il ne lui versait pas de l’argent régulièrement, l’arnaqueur a poussé le jeune homme à bout. « J’ai une vidéo porno de toi. Si tu ne me donnes pas 200 euros, je vais détruire ta vie. » Le jeune Français n’a pas supporté : il s’est pendu à son domicile.

Au Nigeria, les escrocs de la Toile paradent dans de splendides villas, cigare à la bouche.

L’enquête, ouverte par le parquet de Brest, mènerait pour le moment en Côte d’Ivoire, jusqu’à un cybercafé d’Abidjan. Mais à partir de là, tout se complique. En théorie, le parquet français peut émettre une commission rogatoire internationale, afin de demander à la police ivoirienne d’enquêter sur place et d’aboutir, si arrestation il y a, à un jugement en France. Seulement, en 2012, aucun cas de ce genre n’a été signalé. Manque de volonté, semble-t-il, côté français.

Si les pays d’Europe n’exercent pas de pression diplomatique particulière, une solution africaine pourrait émerger. Le Nigeria a adopté, le 27 novembre 2012, une loi définissant les infractions et les sanctions relatives à la cybercriminalité, et la Côte d’Ivoire s’apprête à faire de même cette année. Neuf pays se sont réunis en septembre 2012 à Dakar afin de travailler à l’harmonisation des législations, tandis que des discussions sont en cours à la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (Cedeao).

Crime organisé

Le sujet, bien qu’il paraisse secondaire, est pourtant de taille. À l’échelle de l’Afrique du Sud, pays le plus connecté du continent, les pertes globales s’élèvent à 3,7 milliards de rands chaque année (329 millions d’euros). Surtout, les risques encourus sont encore trop faibles pour contrebalancer les gains. Une véritable criminalité organisée semble ainsi émerger.

Au Nigeria, des hommes d’affaires n’hésitent plus à se revendiquer arnaqueurs, paradant dans de splendides villas, cigares cubains à la bouche, habillés de boubous outrageusement ornés. Se disant marginalisés, ils expliquent faire carrière où ils peuvent. Avec succès.

L’argent facile, c’est aussi ce que recherchent les adolescents qui gravitent autour des cybercafés d’Abidjan. Chaque classe d’âge peut y trouver sa place, des plus jeunes, chargés de l’hameçonnage, aux plus expérimentés, qui achèvent le travail de chantage, plus technique. Pour l’instant, internet remplit efficacement leurs poches. En 2011 en Côte d’Ivoire, plus de 14 milliards de F CFA (21 millions d’euros environ) auraient été extorqués pour 914 dénonciations et seulement 6 personnes condamnées par la justice. Avec la Toile, les escrocs ont trouvé un nouveau terrain de jeu.

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Lu par 4584 Boytown

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