Je veux me soigner au naturel. Comment m’y prendre?

Lu par 1256 Boytown

La naturopathie est un système médical complet et cohérent qui mise avant tout sur la stimulation des mécanismes naturels d’autoguérison du corps. Les interventions du naturopathe visent en premier lieu à activer, nourrir et renforcer ces mécanismes plutôt qu’à éliminer des symptômes ou à attaquer directement des agents pathogènes. Elles se veulent aussi douces etnon effractives que possible.

Parmi les outils privilégiés de la naturopathie, on retrouve, entre autres, la phytothérapie, lanutrition, l’homéopathie, l’aromathérapie, les manipulations physiques, les techniques de gestion du stress, etc.

Pour mieux comprendre ce qu’est aujourd’hui la naturopathie, il peut être utile de rappeler ses origines, qui remontent à 2 500 ans, et son évolution plus récente, depuis une centaine d’années.

Ses origines

Par sa nature et ses fondements, la naturopathie se rattache résolument à la tradition médicale de la Grèce antique. Les principes qui président de nos jours à la pratique naturopathique doivent beaucoup au « Corpus hippocratique » qui a constitué la base de la médecine occidentale, du Ve siècle avant Jésus-Christ jusqu’au début du XXe siècle. En voici les grandes lignes.

Primum non nocere – D’abord ne pas nuire. Les symptômes d’une maladie (la fièvre, par exemple) peuvent être des manifestations d’un processus de guérison. Par conséquent, leur suppression pure et simple peut causer plus de tort que de bien. Les interventions thérapeutiques doivent donc favoriser le processus naturel de guérison et non le contrer.

Vis medicatix naturae – La nature recèle son propre pouvoir de guérison. Le corps possède la capacité inhérente de préserver la santé et de la rétablir lorsqu’il l’a perdue. Au coeur de l’organisme vivant se trouvent les forces de vie permettant d’y parvenir. Le rôle du médecin ou du thérapeute consiste à faciliter l’accès à ces forces en découvrant et en éliminant les obstacles qui s’y opposent.

Tolle causam – Découvrir et traiter la cause. Le médecin doit rechercher les causes de la maladie plutôt que de tenter d’en supprimer les symptômes. La maladie est vue comme l’aboutissement ultime d’un dérèglement particulier. Le rétablissement de l’équilibre naturel ne peut se faire qu’en travaillant sur les causes à l’origine de ce dérèglement.

Docere – Enseigner. Le médecin doit guider son patient sur la voie de la guérison et l’aider à préserver sa santé de façon naturelle. Il doit donc lui enseigner à prendre soin de lui-même et à prendre en charge son propre processus de guérison, selon les principes suivants :

  • L’approche holistique. Le thérapeute explique au patient que sa maladie est le fruit d’un ensemble complexe d’interactions entre les plans physique, mental, émotionnel et spirituel, et qu’il devrait intervenir sur chacun d’eux.
  • L’alimentation. Il lui enseigne comment se nourrir de façon à obtenir tous les nutriments nécessaires à sa santé, afin d’éviter de recourir à des médicaments de synthèse ou à des interventions chirurgicales.
  • La prévention. Il lui enseigne enfin comment agir sur son environnement et son mode de vie afin de maximiser ses forces et son bien-être et, au bout du compte, de réduire les risques de maladie.

L’évolution récente

À partir de la fin du XIXe siècle, au moment où toutes les sciences connaissent un essor fabuleux, la médecine découvre et intègre une foule d’approches empiriques allant de l’homéopathie à l’hypnose, en passant par les pharmacopées de diverses cultures. Aux États-Unis, le mouvement de la médecine éclectique a recours à de nombreuses approches médicales venues de la vieille Europe, d’Asie et des peuples amérindiens. Une panoplie de préparations d’herboristerie sont également fort populaires auprès des médecins de l’époque.

C’est dans cette mouvance que l’Allemand Benedict Lust (1870-1945), qui était médecin, ostéopathe et chiropraticien, fonde officiellement la naturopathie après avoir émigré aux États-Unis. En 1902, il inaugure, à New York, la première école de naturopathie : on y enseigne l’hydrothérapie, l’herboristerie, la nutrition, la physiothérapie, la physiologie, la psychologie et une foule d’autres techniques thérapeutiques.

C’est ainsi que, dans le premier quart du XXe siècle, s’ouvriront aux États-Unis quelques douzaines d’écoles de médecine naturopathique offrant des cours d’une durée variant de deux à quatre ans. Ces formations étaient souvent associées à des cours avancés en homéopathie ou en chiropratique, des techniques médicales qui connaissaient également à ce moment un essor important.

Parallèlement à ce foisonnement, se développait une médecine davantage axée sur les interventions chirurgicales dites « lourdes » et sur les médicaments de synthèse issus de l’industrie pharmaceutique naissante. Cette approche, perçue comme étant davantage « scientifique », finit par gagner la faveur des facultés de médecine des grandes universités de l’Occident. C’est cette direction que prend la médecine au cours des décennies qui suivent. Seuls les médecins formés dans les facultés de médecine sont alors autorisés à diagnostiquer et à traiter les maladies. Résultat : la majorité des écoles naturopathiques ferment leurs portes.

Cependant, à partir des années 1970, la naturopathie connaît un regain de popularité auprès du public. Quelques universités américaines commencent même à offrir une solide formation de quatre ans. C’est l’arrivée d’une nouvelle génération de naturopathes.

La naturopathie obtient une certaine reconnaissance au fil des ans. En 1983, l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommandait aux autorités médicales de tous les pays d’intégrer la naturopathie aux services de santé publics. En 1994, le gouvernement des États-Unis accordait, pour la recherche scientifique contre le sida, un budget à la Bastyr University, l’une des grandes écoles de naturopathie en Amérique du Nord.

Naturopathie ou naturothérapie?Dans les pays où il n’y a pas de réglementation qui encadre la naturopathie – ce qui est le cas de plusieurs pays francophones – les termes naturopathie et naturothérapie sont utilisés indifféremment. En langue anglaise, par contre, naturopathy prévaut, et dans les pays où la discipline est officiellement reconnue, on devient docteur en naturopathie (N.D.), non pas en naturothérapie. D’autre part, l’origine du mot naturopathie est incertaine. Il se peut qu’il provienne du latin : naturo, nature, et du grec : pathie, souffrance. Naturopathie signifierait donc soigner la souffrance – ou la maladie – par la nature. Mais le mot vient peut-être plutôt de l’anglais : path se traduisant par chemin. Naturopathie signifierait le chemin (vers la santé) par la nature.

Le statut actuel de la naturopathie

Dans cinq provinces canadiennes (la Colombie-Britannique, le Manitoba, la Nouvelle-Écosse, l’Ontario et la Saskatchewan) et une douzaine d’États américains, ainsi qu’en Australie, en Israël et dans quelques autres pays, on a commencé à autoriser les naturopathes à pratiquer unemédecine de première ligne. Ils sont donc habilités à poser des diagnostics, à commander des analyses et des tests (radiographies, analyses de sang ou d’urine, etc.), à prescrire des traitements, à prodiguer des soins et à diriger les patients vers des médecins spécialistes.

Au Québec et dans la plupart des pays francophones d’Europe, la naturopathie n’est pas officiellement reconnue. Des associations de naturopathes travaillent toutefois en ce sens. Pour le moment, on peut y utiliser le titre de naturopathe, mais il ne désigne pas nécessairement des thérapeutes possédant une formation complète. De plus, leur pratique professionnelle n’est généralement pas soumise à des règles strictes. Ces naturopathes – quelle que soit la valeur de leur formation et de leurs compétences – ne sont pas autorisés à poser de diagnostics ni à prescrire de traitements médicaux. Ils ne peuvent qu’agir en tant que conseillers en santé, en complément des soins fournis par des professionnels de la santé dûment licenciés.

Applications thérapeutiques

Dans les États où la pratique est reconnue, on considère les naturopathescomme de véritables médecins de première ligne capables de traiter aussi bien des situations de crise que des troubles chroniques. On pourrait les comparer à des médecins généralistes, pouvant requérir ou pratiquer des examens, poser des diagnostics, prescrire et administrer des traitements et, même, pratiquer des chirurgies mineures comme l’ablation d’une verrue ou la suture d’une blessure. S’ils estiment que des soins sortant de leur champ d’expertise sont requis, ils adresseront le patient à des spécialistes (médecins, chirurgiens, ostéopathes, homéopathes, etc.).

Dans les autres pays, les naturopathes sont considérés comme des conseillers en santé. Ils interviennent surtout pour contrer des problèmes mineurs qui ne requièrent pas les soins d’une « médecine de pointe », et pour combattre les maladies chroniques et dégénératives. Ils privilégient les approches typiques de la naturopathie, comme la nutrithérapie et les changements aux habitudes de vie.

À noter que des naturopathes siègent de plus en plus souvent au sein des comités de travail chargés de superviser la recherche médicale et le développement des politiques en santé publique à l’initiative des autorités médicales et gouvernementales.

Recherches

On ne dispose pas d’essais cliniques dont les résultats permettraient de démontrer l’efficacité de la naturopathie en tant que système intégré. Mais plusieurs techniques et approches utilisées en naturopathie ont fait l’objet d’essais cliniques (nutritionbalnéothérapiearomathérapie,gemmothérapiehydrothérapie du côlonjeûne, etc.). La phytothérapie (ou herboristerie) demeure toutefois la discipline qui, en naturopathie, a fait l’objet du plus grand nombre d’études scientifiques. En 2003, une revue des synthèses systématiques d’essais cliniques ayant porté sur des thérapies complémentaires a révélé que, sur les 34 synthèses analysées, 20 avaient trait à l’utilisation de plantes médicinales1. Les suppléments couramment utilisés par les naturopathes le sont notamment contre les taux de cholestérol2 élevés et les agents infectieux3.

NaturopathieSection Applications thérapeutiques
Recherche, rédaction et révision scientifique
 : Claudine Blanchet, Ph. D., Chaire en approche intégrée en santé, Université Laval.
(mars 2009)

En pratique

Une visite chez un naturopathe ressemble à une visite dans une clinique classique. Toutefois, le naturopathe vous posera probablement plus de questions sur votre santé générale, votre mode de vie, vos habitudes alimentaires et même votre niveau de stress au travail…

En fait, il tentera de découvrir les causes profondes de votre malaise avant d’intervenir. Par exemple, un mal de tête récurrent ne sera pas traité a priori avec des analgésiques. Avant de proposer un traitement, le naturopathe se demandera d’où provient le mal de tête : d’un trouble musculosquelettique, d’un problème nutritionnel (un faible taux de sucre, par exemple), d’un manque de sommeil, d’un stress excessif… Et bien sûr, les traitements offerts seront conformes à l’approche naturopathique.

Là où la loi permet l’exercice de la naturopathie, les associations professionnelles peuvent fournir un registre de leurs membres. Ailleurs, il faut évaluer soi-même la compétence du thérapeute en vérifiant s’il fait partie d’une association professionnelle, quelle a été sa formation et en demandant des références.

La première visite dure généralement d’une heure à une heure et demie. Les visites suivantes sont de 30 à 40 minutes. Un nombre croissant de compagnies d’assurances couvrent les frais de consultation des naturopathes. Il faut vérifier auprès de son assureur.

Formation

En Amérique du Nord, on compte six institutions d’enseignement dont les programmes sont accrédités par le Council on Naturopathic Medical Education. Cet organisme est reconnu par les États, territoires et provinces où la naturopathie est réglementée. Deux de ces écoles sont situées au Canada et quatre aux États-Unis. Une autre école américaine est en voie d’accréditation (voir Sites d’intérêt).

Toutes ces institutions offrent une formation universitaire de quatre ans à temps plein, soit au moins 4 000 heures, menant au titre de docteur en naturopathie. À l’issue de leur formation, les étudiants doivent réussir l’examen du North American Board of Naturopathic Examiners avant d’obtenir une licence leur donnant le droit d’exercer.

La formation des naturopathes varie quelque peu d’un pays à l’autre, mais comprend généralement des cours de sciences médicales (biologie, anatomie, physiologie, immunologie, etc.), de médecine clinique (diagnostics, laboratoire, principes naturopathiques, etc.) et de techniques spécialisées (nutrithérapie, homéopathie, phytothérapie, hydrothérapie, médecines chinoise et ayurvédique, etc.). En Allemagne, la formation en naturopathie est déjà intégrée à celle des médecins et des pharmaciens. On y forme aussi des praticiens spécialisés en naturopathie, les heilpraktikers.

Là où il n’existe pas de réglementation encadrant l’exercice de la naturopathie, comme c’est le cas au Québec, diverses écoles et organisations proposent toutes sortes de cours. Certaines offrent une formation très minimale, tandis que d’autres, dont le programme d’études s’apparente à celui d’institutions reconnues, peuvent former d’excellents conseillers en santé. Cependant, ceux-ci ne peuvent pas se qualifier pour l’obtention d’une licence de naturopathe qui serait valide là où la pratique est reconnue.

Lu par 1256 Boytown

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