preservatif

Rwanda : faut-il distribuer des préservatifs à l’école ?

Lu par 6677 Boytown

Le débat est amorcé. Les jeunes sont les plus favorables à la distribution du préservatif à l’école comme moyen de contraception et pour se protéger du Sida. Gouvernement et églises s’y opposent.

“Les prédateurs de la jeunesse n’ont plus aucun scrupule. Parfois, ils jettent leur dévolu sur des fillettes de l’école primaire qui abandonnent ainsi l’école après être tombées enceintes”, constate Alphonse Bashima, instituteur dans le district de Burera situé dans la Province du Nord.

“Et les grossesses non désirées ne sont pas le seul risque car le virus du Sida se transmet par la même voie”, rappelle cet enseignant chargé de l’éducation à la santé reproductive, dans son école rurale. Si tout le monde est préoccupé par cette situation, les avis sont partagés sur les stratégies à adopter pour protéger les jeunes, ce “Rwanda de demain”.

Chrétien pratiquant, Alphonse Bashima récuse d’emblée tout recours au préservatif comme moyen de prévention du VIH à l’école primaire et secondaire. “Ce serait dire à nos enfants, allez-y. Ce serait une façon d’inciter à la dépravation même ceux qui n’y pensaient pas encore”, soutient-t-il. Il suggère de vastes et solides campagnes de sensibilisation dans les écoles. Mais sans jamais évoquer, devant les élèves, le mot préservatif.

“Chaque jour qui passe apporte plus de tentations”
Mais son collègue de la ville de Ruhengeri, Germain Manirafasha, voit les choses tout autrement. “Je pense que nous devons cesser de nous voiler la face. Certains de nos enfants, ici en ville, commencent trop tôt à avoir des rapports sexuels. A onze, parfois même à dix ans, ce n’est un secret pour personne”, fait remarquer l’enseignant.

“Est-ce parce que leurs parents ou leurs professeurs ne leur parlent pas des risques auxquels ils s’exposent ?”, s’interroge-t-il. “Prêtres catholiques, pasteurs et imams prêchent depuis plusieurs années, mais la situation ne change pas. Et chaque jour qui passe apporte plus de tentations qui font tomber nos enfants dans le piège”, affirme-t-il. Pour lui, “il faut sortir du tabou, oser parler aux élèves du préservatif comme moyen de prévention du VIH.” Il souligne cependant que le préservatif doit être préconisé comme une solution ultime, lorsque le désir devient irrésistible.

“Mais est-on au moins sûr que ces jeunes savent utiliser correctement le préservatif ? Ne voit-on pas certains enfants jouer avec les préservatifs, en les remplissant d’eau ou en s’en servant pour fabriquer des balles ?”, réagit Mathilde Mukandayambaje, assistante sociale . “Une raison de plus de parler davantage du condom [préservatif en anglais, NDLR]”, intervient Dynaroo Tandimwebwa, étudiant en Agronomie.

Pour lui, il faut pousser le courage plus loin, oser distribuer les condoms au moins dans les écoles secondaires. “Certains de nos élèves du secondaire couchent avec leurs collègues ou leurs professeurs. Si l’on veut avoir un Rwanda de demain sain, capable de travailler sur les chantiers du développement, il faut que les préservatifs soient disponibles dans les écoles”, argumente le jeune étudiant.

“Eveiller la conscience des jeunes”
Ils sont encore loin d’être nombreux ceux qui tiennent un langage comme celui de ce futur agronome. L’idée donne même un haut-le-cœur aux confessions religieuses, en tête desquelles vient l’Eglise catholique, omniprésente dans tous les secteurs de la vie nationale.

De toutes les institutions, c’est elle qui est propriétaire du plus grand nombre d’écoles primaires et secondaires. “Le préservatif n’est pas la solution aux problèmes que nous avons avec la jeunesse. Au contraire, il viendrait les aggraver”, écrit, dans un communiqué, Mgr Smaragde Mbonyintege, président de la Conférence des évêques catholiques du Rwanda.

“Les rapports sexuels extraconjugaux, l’usage de la drogue et le sida ont-ils pour cause nos enfants ou des personnes adultes ?”, interroge le prélat. Pour l’homme d’église, “parents, éducateurs et élèves devraient se réunir chaque année au niveau de chaque école pour discuter de l’éducation à donner à leurs enfants”, mais sans parler du condom.

Le gouvernement, quoi qu’engagé dans une vaste campagne de promotion du préservatif, hésite encore lui aussi à le mettre publiquement à la disposition des élèves. “Notre position en tant que gouvernement est d’encourager l’éducation à la santé reproductive dans nos écoles secondaires, dans le but d’éveiller le conscience de notre jeunesse sur les dangers associés aux rapports sexuels précoces, et non distribuer des condoms”, indique la ministre de la Santé Agnès Binagwaho.

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