Un “drone” de mot interdit aux Nations unies

Le “drone”, l’une des armes meurtrières éminemment controversées de plus en plus déployée en Afrique, est un gros mot dans le lexique des Nations unies.

Ainsi, lorsque le sous-secrétaire général aux opérations de maintien de la paix, Hervé Ladsous, a été interrogé sur les plans de l’ONU d’utiliser des drones en République démocratique du Congo (RDC), il a soulevé des objections.

“Je n’utiliserais pas le mot drones” a-t-il déclaré aux journalistes mercredi, optant pour un euphémisme militaire : “véhicules aériens sans pilote” (UAV). Hervé Ladsous a dit que les Nations Unies envisagent d’utiliser “des UAV non armés” uniquement à des fins de surveillance — mais avec l’autorisation expresse du gouvernement de la RDC et des pays voisins.

“Nous verrons comment cette expérience marche”, a-t-il indiqué, ajoutant que les Nations Unies seront “ouvertes” pour le partage de toute information quelconque qu’elles recueillent avec les organismes régionaux en Afrique, en plus des commandants des forces de l’ONU sur le terrain.

Vers des drones armés ?
Le “feu vert” pour l’utilisation de drones non armés en RDC — un pays aux prises avec une insurrection violente — a été donné par les 15 membres du Conseil de sécurité en novembre 2012, et vise à surveiller le mouvement des groupes armés par la Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en RDC (MONUSCO) forte de 17.500 soldats.

Mais certains diplomates de l’ONU craignent que les drones de l’organisation ne puissent être finalement armés, si et quand le conflit en RDC vire au pire.

Les drones utilisés par les Etats-Unis sont bien armés et ont entraîné le meurtre à la fois de terroristes présumés et de civils dans des pays tels que l’Afghanistan, le Pakistan, la Somalie et le Yémen. Selon Amnesty International, il y a eu plus de 300 attaques de drones au Pakistan seul au cours de ces dernières années, qui ont tué des civils ainsi que des militants présumés.

L’inquiétude de Ban Ki-moon
Le secrétaire général de l’ONU, Ban Ki-moon, a déjà exprimé son “inquiétude” par rapport à l’utilisation de drones armés pour des meurtres ciblés, “puisqu’elle soulève des questions par rapport au respect du principe fondamental de la distinction entre combattants et non-combattants.”

Le porte-parole adjoint de l’ONU, Farhan Haq, a indiqué en janvier que les attaques de drones auraient également fait “d’importantes victimes, soulevant des questions par rapport à la capacité à assurer la conformité totale avec le principe de proportionnalité.”


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